News

Tourism

PNG Business News - June 20, 2022

PNG Records Increase in Tourists in 2022 Q1

In the first quarter of 2022, Papua New Guinea welcomed 9845 overseas tourists after the COVID-19 travel restrictions were lifted. Eric Mossman Uvovo, Chief Executive Officer of the Tourism Promotion Authority (TPA), disclosed. He said that in the first quarter of 2022, the country had a 100 percent rise in overseas arrivals, or an additional 4933 people, compared to the same period last year. He said that, following years of steady development in visitor arrivals, PNG's numbers plummeted in 2020 and 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic, which reduced foreign travel to its lowest level ever. However, in 2022, the numbers are gradually increasing as more destinations are added. “Out of the total arrivals to PNG 18 per cent came for business, two per cent on holiday, four per cent came to visit friends and relatives, 67 per cent came for employment, one per cent came for Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions (MICE) and the remaining eight per cent visited the country for other reasons. As many countries around the world have opened their international borders, arrivals are starting to pickup in 2022 and this healthy trend is expected to continue throughout the year and next year onwards,” Mr Uvovo said. He stated that their foreign agents and local operators have indicated that passengers are anxious to visit, but that the main difficulty has been with the Visa online application. “We have met with the Department of Immigration and Citizenship who assured us that they will look into this issue and tourists can apply for online visas to travel immediately,” he said.   Reference: Kamus, Maxine. Post-Courier (16 June 2022). “PNG Records Increase In Visitors In 2022 First Quarter”. 

Agriculture

PNG Business News - June 20, 2022

NFA Group in the Philippines For Exchange Fisheries Experience

A group from the National Fisheries Authority is in General Santos, Philippines, led by board chairman Ango Wangatau, to exchange and gain fisheries expertise and experiences in this region. General Santos is renowned as the Philippines' "Tuna" city capital, and visiting this region provides delegates with first-hand information and improved ideas for implementing the Fisheries Strategic Plan 2021-2030 and achieving its objectives. It has the Philippines' most modern fish port and contributes significantly to the country's earnings. The remarkable expansion of fisheries in General Santos was driven by collaboration between the government and important stakeholders, which the NFA delegates witnessed and will think about further when they return home. “Seeing is believing and we needed to come and see the sizeable scale and strength of this Fisheries industry in the Philippines. “From here we want to incorporate the existing knowledge and experience of our Philippine counterparts to model and expand our own infrastructure in PNG,” Mr. Wangatau said. According to him, the goal of the Fisheries Strategic Plan is to change Papua New Guinea into the Pacific's "Tuna Capital," thus visits like these are important to gather additional expertise from a country that has already been transformed. The delegates saw tuna landings, grading, weighing, and processing, as well as the fishing boat docking yard and the world's largest prawns and fish farm. These first-hand experiences will help PNG Fisheries prepare for the establishment of a downstream processing facility for all tuna collected in the country, as well as greater employment development for the people. “We are here and have seen what is done with fisheries in General Santos. If it can be done here, we can also do it in PNG,” he said.   Reference: Post-Courier (16 June 2022). “National Fisheries Team Visits Philippines Tuna Capital For Exposure”.

Mining

PNG Business News - June 20, 2022

Wafi-Golpu Project On Final Stages Of Negotiation

The Wafi-Golpu project's State Negotiating Team is thought to be in the final stages of discussions with shareholding companies. However, due to the National General Election, most of the work on the ground has been put on pause. Any development forum procedure that arises following the successful completion of the mining development contract discussions, according to Mineral Resources Authority managing director Jerry Garry, will be effective after the elections. “Right now the State Negotiating Team and the shareholding companies including Newcrest and Harmony Gold are very much in the final leg of negotiations. “The details of the negotiations are confidential at this stage and we will have to wait until SNT and the development concludes this phase of work,” he said. In the meanwhile, the Frieda River mine is expected to open in the fourth quarter of this year. Mr Garry stated that nothing has progressed in the assessment process for Frieda River and that they plan to begin construction after Porgera and Wafi-Golpu are completed. “Weare involved in what we called the state negotiation or the state-related negotiations. It does not only require the MRA officers but requires a full complement of state-related departments and agencies,” Mr Garry said. “In this case, we would require the participation of the State Solicitors office, National Planning, Department of Finance, and key officials from the Department of Treasury, Internal Revenue Commission, Bank of PNG, Department of Labour and Employment, and the Department of Commerce. “It requires all the state departments to be involved when it comes to assessing a mining project, particularly a major project such as the Freda River and Wafi-Golpu.”   Reference: Wohi, Lorraine. Post-Courier (15 June 2022). “Wofi-Golpu Project On Final Leg Of Negotiation”.

Mining

PNG Business News - June 20, 2022

MRE Yet to Sign Off on Porgera Agreement

Photo: Porgera Mine  Given the delayed pace in obtaining stakeholders to sign off on the Porgera Project Commencement Agreement and progress shareholders agreement, the reopening of the Porgera mine is currently on hold. Jerry Garry, managing director of the Mineral Resource Authority, said the State Negotiating Team (SNT) is continuing in talks with Mineral Resources Enga and traditional landowners to sign the two crucial agreements. He stated that after the two agreements are completed, they will submit the transfer of an interest in the special mining lease SML11 to MRA, and the different interests in this agreement will be reflected on the special mining lease SML11.. He stated that they are currently working to resolve some minor difficulties. “Kumul Minerals Holding Limited apply for the license and the license was granted on the basics of what was submitted by Kumul. But now that they have engaged MRA and other parties to become shareholders, there will be new directors on board,” Mr Garry said. “If they feel that they need to amend some of the documents or the work they want to develop the mine forward, they will then apply for variation which under the Mining Act is allowable and those variation will be processed by MRA and to give them the clearance to go ahead and reopen the mine.” Mr Garry stated that this is the final step and that after it is done, a formal development forum would be held. He explained that the advantages that have previously been agreed upon in numerous agreements may now be translated to the provincial government, landowners, and other recipients below the level of the National Government. The development forum will take place as soon as MRA has completed the documents and the transfer of interest. On the 20th and 21st of this month, the Development Forum will take place.   Reference: Wohi, Lorraine. Post-Courier (15 June 2022). “MRE Yet To Sign Porgera Commencement Agreement”.

Company

PNG Business News - June 20, 2022

iPi Group Donates 480 cartons Tenkyu. Wara to Hospital

Photo: Tenkyu.wara delivered to Angau Hospital “With forward looking vision toward innovation, growth, sustainability and respect for the people and our communities, The iPi Group’s Tenkyu. initiative is an example if this commitment to our people and community. “As we continue to develop, we want to give back to the community whom support us in a meaningful way,” said iPi Group CEO Peter Long. Last Friday, The iPi Group donated 480 cartons of Tenkyu. Wara to Angau Memorial Hospital in Lae. The generous donation worth K9,504 in-kind is part of the Group’s ongoing commitment to contribute meaningfully back into the communities where they operate. “We thought that the potential of the Hospital using bottled water would be nothing less than a good thing for a great, genuine and worthy cause,” said Mr Long. In response, Morobe Provincial Health Authority acting Director Corporate Services, Aung Kumal, thanked the Group. He said, “on behalf of Morobe Provincial Health Authority, I sincerely thank the iPi Group for donating 400 plus cartons of bottled water to Angau Hospital. “Your kind gesture will very much contribute towards delivery of quality health care to our patients.” Long further added that The iPi Group is delighted to help and assist under any circumstances. iPi Transport and Logistics manager, Brian Warrillow was onsite to deliver the 7,200 water bottles. That is a total of 3,600 litres of HACCP certified, purified PNG water, Tenkyu. wara. K960 profit from initial purchase of Tenkyu.wara will go towards Tenkyu. initiatives.   Article courtesy of IPI Group

Energy

PNG Business News - June 20, 2022

ADB, Australia, PNG Partner to Boost Access to Clean, Reliable, and Affordable Power

Photo credit: ADB The Asian Development Bank (ADB) today announced a $305 million project which will support the strengthening and expansion of electricity in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The Power Sector Development Project is supported by loans and grants from ADB and the governments of Australia and PNG and will target five subprojects within the main power grids of the country’s power utility, PNG Power Limited (PPL). ADB provided two loans amounting to $208.6 million, the Government of Australia contributed a $59.5 million loan and a $12.8 million grant, and the Government of PNG with PPL will yield $24.1 million. “PNG has one of the lowest rates of electricity access in the Pacific, with only 13% of households having access,” said Director of ADB Pacific Department’s Energy Division Mukhtor Khamudkhanov. “The project will contribute to the government’s objective of connecting 70% of its population to electricity by 2030 and will help advance reforms in the power sector.” The project will expand and upgrade transmission lines and substations in Gazelle, Ramu, and Port Moresby; build new low- and medium-voltage power distribution lines in Gazelle, Ramu, and Port Moresby, and mini grids in West New Britain; and strengthen the capacity of PPL through the introduction of procurement and implementation, utility operation, and financial management reforms. The limited electricity access in PNG stifles economic growth and exacerbates poverty and inequality in both urban and rural areas. COVID-19 has also impacted the local economy, and quality infrastructure is a central component of the government’s post-pandemic economic recovery strategy. The stable power grids proposed under the project will help maintain urban health facilities’ basic operations and are critical to reducing COVID-19 risks. ADB is committed to achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific, while sustaining its efforts to eradicate extreme poverty. Established in 1966, it is owned by 68 members—49 from the region.   Article courtesy of ADB

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Mining

PNG Business News - June 17, 2022

Ok Tedi opens new camp facilities

Photo: The new Camps and Catering Office and carpark Ok Tedi Mining Limited (OTML) is committed to providing a safe and conducive working environment for its employees and business partners.  Managing Director and CEO Musje Werror made these remarks during the opening of the new Camp Administration office and a cafeteria in Tabubil on the 25th of May. The new office will improve camp and messing services that OTML provides for its workforce and visitors while the cafeteria provides light snacks and beverages for workers who prefer a light meal outside the mess opening hours. The new facilities are located near the main messing facility.  The total cost of the project was US$1.2 million and included an upgrade of the mess parking area. Mr Werror commended the company’s Infrastructure Support Services (ISS) Department including Starwest Ltd for successfully completing the project. “Our camp facilities are old and are in need for replacement or refurbishment and we have commenced a renewal program which will include the replacement of a number of our old dongas commencing this year,” Mr Werror said. The Camp Administration office was officially opened by OTML Board Director and Chairman of the Kumul Minerals Ok Tedi Ltd Bonny Ninai and witnessed by other members of the Board, OTML management and camp residents, and business partners.   Article courtesy of Ok Tedi Mining

Business

PNG Business News - June 15, 2022

Bougainville Foundation Day - 17 years on

Photo credit: ABG Celebrations began as early as 5am in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville as the region marked its 17th anniversary since the establishment of the Autonomous Bougainville Government. Seventeen years ago on 15 June 2005, the members of the first Bougainville House of Representatives were sworn in under the leadership of the first President of Bougainville, the Late Honorable Joseph Kabui. At the Dawn Service held at the Parliament House in Kubu, Buka, the ABG Vice President reflected on Bougainville’s journey, saying that Bougainville has come a very long way. “Here we find ourselves, in the 21st century, about 400 years after being discovered by European explorers, 100 years since the Christian faith was brought to us, 34 years since the Bougainville Crisis, 21 years of implementing the Bougainville Peace agreement, and 17 years of exercising an Autonomous Government arrangement, we are still charting with perseverance our path to become the next independent island nation in the pacific,” Nisira said. “Under the Toroama-Nisira government, the agenda of the implementation of the BPA remains the highest priority by ensuring that the cause for our fight for Independence is not forgotten.” Vice President Nisira called on all Bougainvilleans to be prepared for the changes that will inevitably take place in Bougainville’s political journey. He said the ABG has already embarked on its Independence-Ready program which aims to collectively see individual Bougainvilleans positively contributing and preparing to make Bougainville an independent nation. Vice President Nisira who is also the Minister for Commerce, Trade and Economic Development, further called on Bougainvilleans to support the government’s call to improve the economic environment on Bougainville. “Our vision is to achieve a status of life where all Bougainvilleans are happy and satisfied with their living standards and the quality of government services received. In order to achieve this, we must all contribute to the improvement of our lives, as it is a collective effort.” “Whether you are subsistence farmer, a mother, a student, a fisherman, a cocoa farmer, a public servant, an employer of a small company, a PMV driver, etc. We all have an important role and responsibility. We all have a job to do. We must now all take up these roles with pride and ownership knowing that in one way or another, by our positive actions, we are contributing to the Independence of Bougainville,” he said. Nisira reminded the people that as the celebrations happen today for our foundation, they must not forget Bougainville’s historic past. “As we come together to celebrate the foundation of our Bougainville Government, let us commemorate the efforts of our forefathers and mothers who began the movement to be liberated as an ethnic group of people.” “Let us be proud of our journey of resilience and bravery to stand up for our dignity, heritage and history, which form the foundations of which our government is built and let us embrace the bold future ahead of us.”   Article courtesy of ABG

Mining

PNG Business News - June 15, 2022

MRA Executives Visit Simberi Mine

Photo credit: PNG Chamber of Mines and Petroleum The Mineral Resources Authority (MRA) has commended St Barbara for the application of modern technology in the safe operation of its Deep-Sea Tailings Placement pipeline and in its fleet of heavy equipment at its Simberi mine. MRA Managing Director Jerry Garry, who visited Simberi mine for the very first-time last week, was particularly impressed with the use of geotagging in the monitoring of the DSTP line and the In-Vehicle Monitoring System (IVMS) which records operator activity in the equipment. Mr Garry said the improvements were indicative of the mine moving beyond compliance requirements to values-based commitments as it transitions from oxide mining to sulphides. The installation of the geotagging system on Simberi’s DSTP pipeline means exact coordinates can be transmitted while the IVMS – which includes a camera unit, vibrating seat cushion and warning lights – is monitoring operator/driver activities and identifying unsafe behavior. Mr Garry, who was accompanied by his Executive Manager Development Coordination Andrew Gunua, took a tour of Simberi’s pit - where he was fascinated by the use of the three-kilometre rope conveyor in ore delivery to the process plant - before visiting a range of community projects built under St Barbara ‘Stronger Communities’ commitment. Messrs Garry and Gunua also toured the Simberi cocoa nursery - the source of the current Tabar dark chocolate that is being trialled and enjoyed in New Ireland - and were impressed with Simberi’s mariculture initiatives which include coral and mangrove propagation and growing of giant clams. The duo also visited the Simberi Primary School, community markets, and Maragon Clinic - facilities that derived from partnerships between St Barbara, Simberi Mining Area Landowner Association, and the New Ireland Provincial Government. They commended Simberi management for striving to embed a high performing safety and social responsibility culture in the operation.   Article courtesy of PNG Chamber of Mines and Petroleum

Business

PNG Business News - June 14, 2022

ADB’s Transport Investments in Pacific Forecast at Over $1.6 Billion in 2022–2024

Photo credit: ADB The Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) transport investments in the Pacific are expected to reach over $1.6 billion, including $115 million in cofinancing, for 22 projects during the 2022–2024 period, according to the latest issue of the Pacific Transport Update launched today. The Pacific Transport Update 2022 provides an overview of ADB’s technical assistance and lending activities to the transport sector in the Pacific region. It showcases the results of ADB’s operations in land, maritime, and air transport, and highlights ADB’s focus on policy planning and capacity building in the sector. “ADB’s activities in the Pacific transport sector is building resilient, sustainable infrastructure to connect people with the resources and opportunities they need to thrive. At the same time, we work to ensure domestic stakeholders have the capacity and resources to manage transport services,” said Director of ADB Pacific Department’s Transport Division Dong-Kyu Lee. “Transport projects account for more than 52% of the total value of the department’s portfolio.” The report says the region’s developing countries are among the most vulnerable countries in the world due to natural hazards and the effects of climate change. There is a pronounced need to increase connectivity across the region and to ensure that infrastructure is built and managed to endure. ADB is also helping to increase resilience to natural hazards by integrating disaster risk management and climate-resilient design considerations into most of its projects and technical assistance in the region. The report focuses on the achievements of ongoing ADB-assisted projects in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Papua New Guinea has the largest active transport portfolio, with cumulative lending reaching $2.1 billion in 2021. ADB transport sector activities are focused on leveraging transport infrastructure to connect people with markets and opportunities. Solomon Islands is also a major beneficiary with $238.1 million in active portfolio to implement road and maritime projects. Fiji is improving its transport infrastructure with ADB’s assistance, and Samoa is increasing the capacity of its existing international port in Apia and rehabilitating and upgrading existing roads. In Kiribati and Tuvalu, ADB is assisting in improving accessibility to outer islands with maritime facilities and harbors. The international port of Tonga in Nuku’alofa is being upgraded and a new international port in Nauru is being constructed. In Vanuatu, ADB is supporting interisland shipping. ADB is committed to achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific, while sustaining its efforts to eradicate extreme poverty. Established in 1966, it is owned by 68 members—49 from the region.   Article courtesy of the ADB

Mining

PNG Business News - June 14, 2022

Metallurgical testing confirms high concentrate recoveries and option for a simple low capex processing plant

Photo credit: Adyton Resources Adyton Resources Corporation is pleased to report that its recent preliminary metallurgical test work program performed by leading Australian metallurgy company Core Metallurgy Pty Ltd confirmed that ROM (‘run of mine”) ore samples from the Gameta deposit upgraded well using a limited range of conditions and produced a concentrate assay of 22.3 g/t Au and 32.9 g/t Ag with recoveries of 86.9% Au and 84.6% Ag. Due to sample size limitations and the preliminary nature of the test work program, these results should be considered unoptimized with further test work required to optimize reagent conditions and further improve recoveries and grades. Test work program overview – Three representative 30kg samples from crushed reject were initially selected representing the three main ore types, namely silica-rich ore, clay-rich ore, and footwall (quartz vein) mineralisation. Additional test work was subsequently completed on an additional 22kg of fresh-core samples to ensure that the test work mirrored as close as possible expected plant-feed ore. Testing on the fresh core covered crushing, homogenisation, fire assay and ICP scan, indicative Leachwell extraction and flotation with a cleaner stage to produce a marketable concentrate. Results confirmed that flotation is the most suitable commercial method of gold recovery, producing a concentrate for sale to third parties or treated on-site using a suitable oxidative method. Managing Director Tim Crossley said, “we are pleased with the outcomes of this preliminary test work which showed high recoveries of both gold and silver in concentrate which paves the way for a low capital, simple processing flow sheet of crush, grind and float to produce a saleable concentrate for sale to third party processors”, Mr Crossley went on to say “that with further optimization work we are confident that significantly higher gold concentrate grades may be achieved” Next Steps – further test work will focus on Pre-Feasibility Study (PFS) level studies on fresh drill core samples, examining both comminution (crushing and grinding) and flotation to optimise conditions and further improve metallurgical performance. Flotation optimisation will be carried out on blended composites, variability test work, and comminution for ball-mill sizing. 2021 Drill Program:  The thirty-eight-hole diamond drilling program at the Gameta Project carried out in March until August 2021 was designed to test the continuity of mineralisation and to increase confidence in historical assay results within the inferred resource envelope from drilling conducted in the mid-1990’s. The drilling was focused on the northern third (“the northern ore zone”) of the known resources with a strike extent of over 700m being tested (note the resource zone itself occurs over a strike interval of 2,000m). Testing targeted the shallower open-pitable material, with drilling generally less than 120m and aimed to provide confirmatory data to support the results from historical RC drilling programs ahead of a resource upgrade which occurred in Q3 2021. Some extensional drilling was also part of the program, testing below, down dip and along strike from known resources, this work confirmed the resource was open both down dip and along strike. 2022 Metallurgical Program:  Several samples were selected for the 2022 preliminary metallurgical test-work program as reported in this announcement. Adyton approached Core Metallurgy to provide test work on three coarse reject samples and metallurgical development support. The primary goal of the initial works was to establish whether all the ore types are amendable to flotation with a potential flowsheet option being to produce a saleable concentrate. The work programme will also confirm whether the ores are of a refractory nature and what flowsheet options may be applicable for the deposit.   Article courtesy of Adyton Resources

Mining

PNG Business News - June 14, 2022

Adyton successfully completes Wapolu Wardens Hearing

Photo: Mining Warden Kopi Wapa addresses local Wapolo Landowners Adyton Resources Corporation is pleased to report that it has successfully completed a Wardens Hearing for the renewal of Exploration Licence EL 2549. The Hearing, which is a mandatory processstep in the renewal for all exploration licenses in PNG, was conducted by senior Mineral Resources Authority (MRA) Mining Warden Mr Kopi Wapa on May 31 2022 at Wapolu village on Fergusson Island with all principal landowners present. EL 2549 hosts the Wapolu prospect, which together with the nearby Gameta prospect, is a key element to Adyton’s current commercialization assessment of the Fergusson Island Projects. The Fergusson Island Projects have the stated gold resources tabled below. Managing Director Tim Crossley said, “in PNG the Wardens Hearing is an important, mandatory part of the regulatory process for renewing exploration licences and provides an opportunity for the impacted stakeholders to provide input into the renewal process. The Hearing confirmed strong support by land holders and other stakeholders for Adyton to continue its exploration activities. It was also a good opportunity for me to travel to the Island and meet our principal landowners and other key stakeholders. I am very encouraged by the support the company has to continue with its activities.”   Article courtesy of Adyton Resources

Business

PNG Business News - June 13, 2022

NFA Sees Shift in Global Trading Market Requirements

Photo credit: NFA The National Fisheries Authority (NFA) is focusing on Food Safety, COVID-19, and Pandemic Control Frameworks due to a considerable shift in global trading market requirements. Acting Manager for the Audit Certification Unit, Josephine Komboi, NFA, highlighted the importance of developing the National Fish and Fishery Products Standard, as well as its experience, market dimensions, and access, which is beneficial to the global trading market, during a presentation at the World Food Safety Day. She stated that major trading partners had scrutinised the standard requirements for PNG's fishery product food safety and trade requirements for the previous ten years, but that changes have now been made to incorporate the requirements of trading partners, including changes in the industry, technological advancements, and product diversification. NFA is seeing an increase in market and product variety as a result of the rules, as well as a decrease in quick alerts and complaints from importing nations.  “We want to now upskill and create awareness to our small operators who are producing prawns, lobsters, crabs to understand the standard requirements and prepare for the change in market requirements.”   Reference: Iru, Jasmine. Loop (9 June 2022). “NFA Sees Change In Market Requirements”.

Agriculture

PNG Business News - June 13, 2022

The Department of Agriculture and Livestock to Establish Corporate Plan

After 20 years, the Department of Agriculture and Livestock intends to reorganise and construct a corporate and sector strategy. At the 4th World Food Safety Day, Acting Secretary Dr. Nelson Simbiken stated this. According to Dr. Simbiken, the key to reforming the department is to have a Corporate Plan and a Sector Plan, which DAL does not have. The National Agriculture Development Plan, which was implemented in 2006, was the last excellent sector plan in effect. Dr. Simbiken explained that they had been attempting to integrate government programmes but that they lacked a clear focus on how to deliver, draw resources, and attract investment.  “In the next few months, we will be launching the DAL Corporate plan. It will be the first corporate plan, 2023 to 2027. We are targeting to launch it at the end of this month. We are going to review the NADP, Policy expenditure and sustainable development goals and integrate this 20-year plan.”   Reference: Iru, Jasmine. Loop (9 June 2022). “DAL New Corporate Plan Underway”.

Agriculture

PNG Business News - June 13, 2022

Baker: Agriculture Remains the Backbone of the Economy

Photo credit: Islands Business Although the economy has diversified, agriculture remains the backbone of Papua New Guinea's economy, providing a living for the majority of the people, according to Institute of National Affairs (INA) executive director Paul Barker. Agriculture, according to Barker, will be critical in securing PNG's economic and employment future, as well as the country's status as a significant agricultural and food producer both locally and regionally. However, he claimed that large portions of the nation were unproductive or too steep for commercial cultivation. “The population is also growing fast, with growing land pressure in parts of the country, as well as the challenges of growing urbanisation and limited formal sector employment opportunities, weak governance, and a relatively short and rather unsatisfactory history of investment in infrastructure and human resource development.” According to Barker, this is exacerbated by pervasive and escalating corruption, as well as inadequate utilisation and accountability of public monies. “Clearly, this also applies to supposed renewable resources, such as forestry and some fisheries and other marine resources which have been widely treated as an infinite resource but extracted in an unsustainable and damaging manner, with repeated harvests well within the period for regrowth or population recovery, or using seriously destructive.”   Reference: The National (7 June 2022). “Agriculture ‘backbone of the economy”. 

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