Weir Minerals’ new Trio® TC84XR live-shaft cone crusher improves safety, functionality and reliability
by PNG Business News - November 30, 2021
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Weir Minerals New TRIO TC84XR Live Shaft Cone Crusher
Weir Minerals has upgraded its range of Trio® TC live-shaft cone crushers. The Trio® TC84XR features all the robust design elements that have made live-shaft crushers a fixture of the mining and sand and aggregate industries for generations, while also incorporating the latest technology to ensure it remains integral to flowsheets long into the future.
‘The Trio TC cone crushers’ live-shaft design has been proven to perform in heavy-duty secondary and tertiary crushing applications. We wanted to build on this strong foundation. My team followed a comprehensive design process – we’ve reviewed and tested every inch of this crusher. While the TC84XR may seem familiar on the outside, we’ve upgraded its design and control functionality. The motor is larger and it has a much higher crushing capacity compared to equivalent sized crushers,’ Mark Utecht, Weir Minerals’ Director of Comminution Engineering said.
‘The result: we now have an incredibly robust, powerful and technologically advanced crusher that is easy to operate, has a low wear rate and uses less energy, which ultimately lowers operating costs,’ he said.
While many OEMs have made the decision to discontinue their live-shaft cone crushers, Weir Minerals has resisted this trend, believing that – because every mining and sand and aggregate operation is different – there can’t be a one-size-fits all approach.
Instead, Weir Minerals partners with its customers and empowers them to choose the machine best suited to their crushing needs.
There are some applications and situations where pedestal (fixed-shaft) style crushers may be the more appropriate solution, which is why Weir Minerals continues to manufacture the premium Trio® TP pedestal style machine.
Weir Minerals is the only global equipment manufacturer that offers both the TC live shaft and TP fixed shaft style machines.
‘The combination of the Trio TP and TC fixed and live-shaft cone crushers ensures that Weir Minerals continue to offer their customers the right technology, regardless of their site structure, operating conditions or application,’ Mark Utecht, Weir Minerals’ Director of Comminution Engineering said.
Trio® live- and fixed-shaft cone crushers are made for modern mines and quarries with advanced hydraulics, wear resistant material and the latest technology.
‘This is really exciting for our customers, as they now have a real choice. The combination of our TC and TP series allows us to have an honest conversation with our customers on the options available to them and make a technological recommendation which truly meets their needs,’ Ekkhart Matthies, Weir Minerals’ Global Application Director said.
Replacing existing live-shaft style machines on site with the Trio® TC84XR crusher is now a straightforward process because it has very similar dimensions and is a comparable weight to its live-shaft predecessors. And because it produces the same product, downstream changes aren’t required, which isn’t the case when replacing a live-shaft style machine with a fixed-shaft style machine.
In other words, there is no need to re-design existing circuits.
The recent technology upgrades in the Trio® TC84XR crusher have improved its safety, functionality and reliability.
‘At Weir Minerals, we understand and appreciate the important role live-shaft cone crushers play in today’s challenging crushing applications. Combining decades of experience and first-hand customer feedback with innovative designs, the highest quality materials and latest in control technology we believe that our new Trio TC84XR cone crusher is the most reliable and robust live-shaft cone in the market today’ Ekkhart Matthies, Weir Minerals Global Application Director said.
Engineered to perform in the most extreme applications, the Trio® TC84XR crusher is robust and easy to maintain and operate. It reliably delivers high crushing force and high horsepower in primary, crushed ore and quarry rock applications.
The ability of the TC84XR crusher to handle variable feed and crush pebbles is also partly a result of its large motor; it’s been designed with higher power capability than comparable cone crushers. Ultimately, this translates to a higher potential crushing force and therefore increase in production.
Another feature that allows it to handle variable feed, as well as deal with tramp material safely, is the fully-automated tramp-release and setting recovery system. The tramp release hydraulics can also be used to safely clear the crushing chamber should a sudden disruption in plant power cause a shut-down of the cone crusher.
The socket assembly has been redesigned to improve sealing, which has optimised functionality and manufacturability by reducing the machining setups of the socket and seal rings. The Weir Minerals comminution team has also redesigned the countershaft assembly to remove welding and machining, while simultaneously improving venting and the dust seal.
The Trio® TC84XR crusher, like the range of TP series cone crushers, can be fitted with ESCO® wear parts, designed with superior ESCO® alloys, they can be custom designed based on your specific requirements. With over 100 years of casting expertise and in-house engineering and metallurgy, ESCO transforms what was already a robust machine into one that, in the toughest conditions, is unsurpassed.
All Trio® equipment is supported by the Weir Minerals unmatched global service centre network – with over 160 facilities worldwide. Further information can be found at https://info.global.weir/trio
PNG Business News - May 24, 2021
Weir Minerals announces major order of Enduron® HPGR with IAMGOLD
Weir Minerals is proud to announce another major order of Enduron® HPGR in Gold application with our valued Customer IAMGOLD. An Enduron® HPGR with rolls measuring 2.4 m x 2.4 m (length : diameter) will be installed at IAMGOLD's Côté Gold Project. This will be the largest HPGR in Canada and the largest in the world in a gold hard rock application. Weir Minerals’ Enduron® HPGR unique design is perfectly suited to IAMGOLD’s Côté Gold operations to achieve industry-leading particle size reduction and with the lowest total operating costs. Enduron® HPGR is the market proven HPGR with the mechanical design to support efficient and durable skewing thanks to its unique bearing arrangement and control philosophy Enduron® HPGR has a unique roll diameter-width ratio which maximizes throughput at the desired product grind Enduron® HPGR self-adjusting cheek plates provide equal sealing distance as flanges at minimum costs Enduron® HPGR is the market leader in large format, high tonnage hard rock HPGR Tim Lundquist, HPGR Regional Sales Manager North America: “Our Enduron® HPGR design will create energy savings of up to 40% compared to an equivalent SABC comminution circuit, while also significantly reducing the need for downstream grinding media. This power and grinding media savings will optimize total ownership cost and also account for a significant reduction in carbon emissions”. Weir Minerals prides itself in being close to its customers at all times. Our Weir Minerals Canada team and purpose-built facilities will be providing full HPGR service for the Côté Gold operations. For more information about Enduron® HPGR please visit enduronhpgr.weir
PNG Business News - July 01, 2021
Weir Minerals Launches Multiflo® Mudflorm Submersible Pump for Large Particle Handling
Weir Minerals, global leader in the provision of mill circuit technology, dewatering solutions and services, has launched the new Multiflo® MudfloTM hydraulic submersible slurry pump. Engineered for abrasive applications and large particle handling, the Multiflo® MudfloTM pump features a hydraulically driven wet-end specifically designed to efficiently and safely reprocess and relocate tailings ponds, maintain water retention dams and manage slimes and sludge ponds. The innovative solution combines the Warman® MGS pump-end, Multiflo® CB32 hydraulic cutters and ESCO® excavation teeth to provide efficient pumping of highly charged and abrasive slurries. Weir Minerals' unique Ultrachrome® A05 chrome alloy impeller ensures high wear resistance and the specially engineered suction strainer minimises the risk of clogging by preventing large solids & debris from entering the pump. Drawing on decades of Warman® pump design experience, the Multiflo® Mudflo™ pump is capable of pumping between 150 and 1,200m3/h, up to 82m head. The Multiflo® CB32 hydraulic cutters feature market-leading ESCO® Ultralok® tooth system to prevent premature breakage, avoid tooth loss and protect the integral locking system to ensure the continuous operation of the pump. Engineered by the Weir Minerals dewatering pump experts in Australia, it is available for global customers from July 2021. “The Multiflo brand is synonymous with high quality and long-lasting equipment. In designing the Mudflo pump, our dewatering experts drew from the very best Multiflo, Warman and ESCO technology and used advanced hydraulics to create an innovative and cost-effective new solution for mine dredging applications,” Cameron Murphy, Director of Dewatering Weir Minerals APAC said. Weir Minerals understands that success is built from enduring partnerships based on close collaboration and a mutual commitment to safety and technical excellence. “It is not uncommon for sites to use a combination of pumps, shovels, excavators and trucks for dredging applications. When one of our long-time partners in Indonesia contacted us about developing a custom solution for the slurry build-up in their sumps, we knew we could provide a better solution,” Geoff Way, Weir Minerals Dewatering Specialist said. “We’re problem solvers. We considered our customer’s pain points and engineered a new solution to efficiently and safely manage their site processes,” he said. The Multiflo® MudfloTM pump can also be retrofitted to competitor OEM equipment; the quick-hitch plate attachment ensures convenient installation and removal from hydraulic excavators. The Multiflo® Mudflo™ pump can be assembled on land, eliminating the safety risks associated with assembling pumps over water. Furthermore, the new hydraulic hose management system reduces the risk of hose entanglement and trip hazards, all the while providing a reliable hose bend radius to ensure smooth oil flow. The Multiflo® MudfloTM pump will be available globally from July 2021. Discover more at https://info.global.weir/mudflo
PNG Business News - May 11, 2021
New Report Identifies Major Carbon Reduction Opportunities in Global Mining
New analysis lays out the scale of the mining industry’s energy use and identifies ways it can be reduced using currently available technologies Materials such as copper, lithium and nickel play an essential role in the technologies like electric vehicles and renewables that will help the world meet its decarbonisation targets As demand for these metals increases, the mining industry must itself become more efficient and environmentally sustainable The global mining industry must move away from legacy systems and processes if it is to meet the challenge of decarbonisation, according to a new report released today which calculates mining’s share of global energy consumption and identifies ways the industry can aid the transition to net zero emissions needed to limit temperatures in line with the Paris Agreement. The report, commissioned by the Weir Group plc, analyses mine energy data from over 40 published studies to give a comprehensive understanding of where energy is consumed in mining and minerals processing. It shows that the total amount of power used by the mining industry – which plays an essential role providing the metals used at the heart of the modern economy – is equal to c.3.5% of global energy use. The metals produced by mining are critical for enabling the global transition to low-carbon infrastructure. But without action, energy use in mining itself is set to trend higher in the coming years as demand increases for metals like copper, nickel and zinc. The report suggests there are technologies available today that could make a significant difference to this trend. For example, it highlights that comminution – i.e. crushing and grinding processes – is the single biggest user of energy at mine sites, typically accounting for 25% of mining’s final energy consumption. This is equivalent to the power used by 221 million typical UK homes, or c.1% of total consumption globally. Comminution is therefore a natural target for the most impactful energy savings opportunities. Small improvements in comminution technologies can lead to relatively large savings in both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. For example, a 5% incremental improvement in energy efficiency across comminution could result in greenhouse gas emissions reductions of more than 30m tonnes of CO2-e. The replacement of traditional comminution equipment with new grinding technology also reduces indirect emissions in the mining value chain, for example by removing the need for the manufacture of emission-intensive steel grinding balls. Of the remaining energy consumption by the mining industry, diesel in varied forms of mobile equipment accounts for 46%, electricity in mining (ventilation) 15% and “other electricity” 14%. Other significant opportunities identified by the report for reducing mining’s energy consumption include optimisation, big data and artificial intelligence. In addition, if zero emissions energy sources are deployed for mining equipment – e.g., renewable energy, energy storage and alternative fuels – then the industry may well be able to achieve zero emissions, leaving a relatively small role for offsets and carbon credits to play. The report comes as the mining industry is under ever-greater pressure to produce essential minerals that support some of the biggest global structural trends, from population growth to urbanisation and decarbonisation. Copper, nickel, steel and lithium are core components of electricity transmission and storage, electric vehicles and renewable energy infrastructure. The move to a decarbonised economy will result in increased primary consumption of these mined commodities, even after factoring for recycling, so it is important that mining itself becomes more sustainable. Download the independent Mining Energy Consumption 2021 report here: www.energysavingsinmining.com Commenting, Weir Group Chief Executive Jon Stanton said: “The mining industry is central to economic development globally, with critical minerals enabling the low-carbon transition required in the rest of the economy. But the environment in which it will operate in future will be very different from the past, requiring comprehensive change and investment. In short: mining needs to become more sustainable and efficient if it is to provide essential resources the world needs for decarbonisation while reducing its own environmental impact.This report is an important contribution to that debate which we hope will spark thoughtful conversations around the world on the way forward.” Alison Keogh, Chief Executive of the Coalition for Energy Efficient Comminution, said: “This report highlights both a challenge and an opportunity to revitalize cross-industry discussion and actions on decarbonisation and ESG solutions. We invite industry leaders to actively contribute and collaborate through mining-vendor-research partnerships and share knowledge. Together, we can accelerate improved energy, emissions and water footprint across industry faster.” Ricardo Garib, Weir Minerals Divisional President commented: “Weir Minerals is focused on making mining more efficient and sustainable by leading technology change in the industry. Our Enduron HPGRs are increasingly replacing conventional milling systems in comminution (crushing, screening and grinding) circuits because of their substantially lower energy consumption, finer rock reduction requiring less water downstream and potential for significant total cost of ownership reductions.” Stuart Hayton, Managing Director of Weir Minerals Netherlands, where the Enduron® HPGRs are designed and manufactured, added: “Not only do Enduron HPGRs require as much as 40% less energy than traditional alternatives, their wearable components last much longer and the maintenance time required to replace worn out parts is significantly lower. The estimated carbon saving of each Enduron HPGR in operation is equivalent to taking more than 3,600 petrol fuelled cars off the roads each year.” Notes: The report quantifies energy use in five commodities: copper, gold, iron ore, nickel and lithium. Bringing together mine energy use data from more than 40 published studies (each of which references dozens more studies) from 2007 to 2020 into a single narrative, the report aims to build a more comprehensive understanding of energy use in the mining industry. Using the current production rates of the commodities in question, and the energy intensities for each of the commodities, a total of 1,68 EJ/a (1,680,000,000,000,000,000 joules per year) has been calculated. This is approximately 0.5% of total final energy consumption globally. Published information indicates that the entire mining industry consumes approximately 12 EJ per year – or 3.5% of total final energy consumption globally. Assuming that present trends continue, there will be 250m electric vehicles on the road by 2030. To meet this demand, production of cobalt, lithium, graphite and nickel will need to be scaled up significantly. Current projections show that the current rate of decarbonisation globally is far below what is required to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement. A sustained decarbonisation rate of up to 7% per year, year on year should be sufficient to achieve the goal of a temperature increase of well below 2°C by 2100. For the mining industry, there are multiple ways to achieve decarbonisation including energy efficiency and fuel/energy switching. Many of these opportunities are starting to be explored by both the mining companies and the mining services providers, who see decarbonisation and energy reduction as a key way to reduce exposure to the risks of climate change.
PNG Business News - January 17, 2022
Access to Quality Credit - Employers Benefit When Staff Benefit
Photo credit: Savi Moni Access to affordable credit is highly valued but not readily available in Papua New Guinea. In an extremely competitive employment marketplace, businesses are increasingly assisting employees to access credit as a means to both attract and retain their top talent. Even in the current economic downturn, there is still a ‘war on talent’ when it comes to PNG’s ‘best and brightest’. This is only set to intensify in 2022 with the Government having effectively given the ‘green light’ to both the PNG LNG expansion (i.e., P’nyang) and the reopening of the Porgera gold mine. Furthermore, despite the slow progression of the much anticipated Wafi-Golpu gold mining project, it will only be a matter of time before it too will require the skillsets of thousands of new employees. A recent Salary Finance survey of US workers found that access to affordable credit is one of the most desired benefits not currently being offered by employers. Human Resource professionals agree, that in combination with competitive salaries, providing staff with access to affordable credit is another way to reduce the likelihood of valued employees ‘jumping ship’. It also helps position a business as an ‘employer of choice’ when it comes to recruitment. Significantly, a key finding from PwC's 2021 Employee Financial Wellness Survey, found that, 72 percent of workers who reported facing increased financial setbacks during the pandemic said they would be more attracted to another company that cared more about financial well-being than their current employer. Savi Moni, an online personal loan service designed specifically for PNG’s corporate sector was launched in 2020. Founder and Director Nick Keane has heard firsthand from several business leaders the concerns they have of losing key staff, as well as the administrative and cost burdens of managing employee credit programs in-house. Having lived and worked in PNG for over 25 years, Keane understands the stress and hardship that a lack of access to affordable credit results in – especially when people resort to lending from unethical pay day street lenders (i.e., ‘loan sharks’). “I’ve seen far too many people – even highly-educated people in good jobs – end up in a cycle of debt that they can’t escape. Typically, these people find themselves with a mix of formal and informal (street lender) loans on high interest rates that they cannot afford. It is a really sad and really desperate situation for a lot of hard working and honest people.” Keane started Savi Moni so that he could help the corporate sector help its employees. “As someone with other business interests in PNG and someone who has managed large PNG workforces, I knew that internally managed employee credit programs are really time consuming, prone to creating workplace issues and not a good use of company capital. As such, we designed our lending product to be simple and streamlined so that there would be an absolutely minimal administrative burden for businesses. We also wanted to introduce the concept of ‘responsible lending’ to the market – that is, by carrying out in-depth assessments to ensure we don’t over lend to our customers. We want them to be able to comfortably manage their repayments, whilst having enough money for life’s essentials left in each pay packet.” Central to the Savi Moni product is the recognition that employee financial wellness is not a ‘warm and fuzzy’ or ‘feel good’ employee program. Financial wellness programs are now a ‘need-to-have’ employee benefit. As such, Savi Moni provides not only a range of free financial literacy tools, tips, resources and courses on its website, but it has partnered with Australian Business Volunteers (ABV) to deliver a PNG bespoke ‘Family Money Management’ two-day course for its loan partner companies. The training is delivered at cost. Solar Solutions, an early adopter of Savi Moni’s loan offering delivered ABV’s Family Money Management course to its Port Moresby staff. Savi Moni’s Pukari Peni, who attended the training session with them reported that “The feedback was great. All of the staff that participated said they greatly benefited from the training.” Port Moresby based Avenell Engineering Systems (AES), has been impressed with the flexibility of setting their own loan parameters. Knowing full well, the negative affects to their business of staff suffering from high levels of financial stress, AES wanted to implement their own lending rules. “Savi Moni really do have a ‘responsible lender approach’, with tight lending guidelines, yet we wanted to ensure even tighter rules for our staff. We set our own Debt to Income (DTI) Ratio and Savi Moni were able to implement this without a hassle.” AESHR Manager, Maria Jesusa Garcia. Savi Moni is a 100 percent online personal lending service with agents on the ground to assist if needed. It is delivered through a convenient and transparent digital platform that a business’ approved HR and Payroll staff log in to. In order for employees to benefit from a Savi Moni personal loan the employing business must first sign up as a Loan Partner, there is no risk for Loan Partners just benefits. Minimal time and effort are required from Loan Partner businesses and their employees to ensure a fast and simple employee credit program. Article courtesy of Savi Moni
PNG Business News - January 17, 2022
Geopacific Resources Appoints Andrew Bantock as Chairman
Photo credit: Geopacific Resources The Board of Geopacific Resources Limited is pleased to announce the appointment of Mr. Andrew Bantock as Chairman and director of Geopacific, and the retirement of Mr. Ian Clyne as Chairman and director of the Company. Mr. Bantock has significant experience leading listed and private businesses, both in Australia and offshore, with an acknowledged track record in corporate finance and commercial leadership. Throughout his career, Mr. Bantock has established a track record for successfully building and improving businesses’ operations and financial structures, developing and communicating their vision and strategy and building and leading high performing teams. Mr. Bantock will work with Geopacific’s Management, the Board and the Company’s consultants to assess the optimal operational model, development plan and funding requirements for the Woodlark Gold Project under the review announced to the market on 15 December 2021, as well as the long-term strategy for the Company. Geopacific Nomination and Remuneration Committee Chair, Mr. Ian Murray said: “Andrew brings a fresh perspective, relevant expertise and the ability to thoroughly assess the Company’s requirements and path forward. His proven leadership, financial and business improvement skills will be invaluable both for the Company’s short-term imperatives and the implementation of its long-term strategy. On behalf of the Board, I would like to thank Mr. Ian Clyne for his dedicated service as Chairman of Geopacific and the achievements during his tenure. We wish Ian all the best in his future endeavours. ” Mr. Bantock said: “It is an important time for Geopacific and I look forward to applying my experience and skills, with the support of the executive management and Board of Geopacific and its consultants, to assess, develop and implement the path forward for the Company. With A$50.9 million of unrestricted net cash reserves and no debt at 31 December 2021, the Company is positioned with a number of strategic options to grow shareholder value”. Background information regarding Mr. Bantock and key terms of appointment Mr. Bantock’s role will be as Non-Executive Chairman of Geopacific, however he has committed in the short-term to a greater involvement in the oversight of the review workstreams currently underway at the Company. Details of the material terms of the arrangements for the provision of Mr. Bantock’s services are set out in an appendix to this announcement. After qualifying as a Chartered Accountant with a leading global firm, working in Australia and the UK, Mr. Bantock commenced his commercial career with ASX/NZSE listed GRD Group, owner of New Zealand’s largest gold producer, Macraes Mining (later Oceana Gold), and well-known resource project design and construction engineer, GRD Minproc. Mr. Bantock later become Finance Director of GRD, also serving six years as a Non- Executive Director of Western Australia’s water utility, Water Corporation, where he chaired the Audit and Compliance Committee. Mr. Bantock subsequently helped to establish and co-lead an ASX listed exploration group, in various roles, including as founding Executive Chairman of Chalice Gold Mines Ltd and founding Managing Director of Liontown Resources Ltd, before being recruited back to a senior finance role, as CFO of Glencore’s Australian nickel business. Mr Bantock is currently a Senior Managing Director of FTI Consulting (FTI Consulting), an independent global business advisory firm where he leads the Perth Business Transformation practice and co-leads the national mining advisory practice, assisting clients to develop and implement business improvement and growth strategies, supported by detailed business case analysis, financing strategies and hands-on execution. Andrew is also Chairman of Elevate Uranium Limited (ASX: EL8). FTI Consulting is providing the services of Mr. Bantock as director and non-executive Chairman of Geopacific under a consultancy agreement. Separately, FTI Consulting has been engaged to assist the Company and work alongside the existing independent technical advisors appointed by the Company over the next three months (subject to any extension) to perform a detailed diagnostic review, make recommendations to the Board on the strategy for the Company and assist with the implementation of key action items, whether through the provision of advice or by providing senior management support and resources. This arrangement has been agreed on normal ‘arms length’ terms and includes appropriate conflict measures. Article courtesy of Geopacific Resources
PNG Business News - January 17, 2022
Panguna Mine Committee Conducts Successful Meeting
A positive first meeting of the Panguna Mine Legacy Impact Assessment Oversight Committee was held in Buka in 2021. Representatives from clan, landowner, and community organizations, as well as the Papua New Guinea government, Rio Tinto, Bougainville Copper Limited, and the Human Rights Law Centre, were hosted by the Autonomous Bougainville Government. The committee gathered to examine the next steps in analyzing the old Panguna mine's environmental and human rights implications. "This process is equally vital and necessary for all parties, the people of Bougainville, ABG and BCL," Geraldine Paul, representing the ABG, said in her opening remarks. She praised Rio Tinto and BCL for agreeing to collaborate with ABG and stated that "ABG has offered its full support for the Panguna Mine Impact Assessment to be carried out through the executive council." Furthermore, Hon. Geraldine Paul informed the committee that a political timeline for Bougainville's independence has been established, and that this process is timely in order to support the people of Bougainville's political ambitions. Rio Tinto’s representative on the Committee, General Manager for Closure Delivery, Mr. John Dumbill said, “Rio Tinto is sorry that we did not come forward earlier to understand the impacts from the mine. We are ready and willing to participate in this process with you. I hope that I can help to move this forward, and I am personally committed to making sure this process is fair and representative." The Honourable Theonila Roka Matbob of the ABG, who is also the spokesperson for the Panguna Complainants group and has recently won an international award for her efforts to seek justice for affected communities, thanked him for the apology and noted that Rio Tinto had been constructive in working through the complaint brought against them by communities through the Australian National Contact Point (AusNCP): “This meeting marks what we hope is the start of a new chapter for the communities impacted by the Panguna mine. Personally, it fills me with great hope to see all these stakeholders come together to discuss a way forward to find solutions to the huge problems our people are living with. We are looking forward to working with the Committee to ensure work on the ground can start as soon as possible," Hon. Theonila Matbob said. Following the meeting, the committee issued a statement through its Independent Chairman, Mr Martin Brash of the Tanorama Consulting Group, said “All parties at the meeting have committed to collaborating in a fair and effective process that helps address the concerns of affected communities. In this first meeting, the committee has established operating arrangements for the process and have also finalised and endorsed a procedure to go to market to find a professional firm to complete the technical impact assessment.” The committee also approved a motion from the ABG's Honorable Geraldine Paul to conduct the next meeting in Panguna in February of this year, when they will get a desktop report tracing available pertinent background information regarding the environment and population in Panguna. The committee and the impact assessment contractor, who will be nominated by the committee in April 2022, will benefit from this study. Reference: Autonomous Bougainville Government (12 January 2022). “Panguna Mine Legacy Impact Committee holds first meeting”